Smart City refers to the use of various information technologies or innovative ideas to integrate the constituent systems and services of the city to improve the efficiency of resource utilization, optimize urban management and services, and improve the quality of life of citizens. Smart city fully uses the new generation of information technology in all walks of life in the city. It is an advanced form of urban informatization based on the next generation of innovation (Innovation 2.0) in the knowledge society. It realizes the deep integration of informatization, industrialization and urbanization, which will help to alleviate the “big city disease”, improve the quality of urbanization, achieve refined and dynamic management, improve the effectiveness of urban management and improve the quality of life of citizens.

The concept of Smart City originated from the concept of “smart earth” proposed by IBM. Specifically, the concept of “smartness” is to enable human beings to manage production and living conditions in a more refined and dynamic manner through the application of a new generation of information technology, by embedding and equipping sensors into power supply systems in every corner of the world In various objects of production and living systems such as water supply systems, transportation systems, buildings, and oil and gas pipelines, the Internet of Things formed by it is connected to the Internet to realize the integration of human society and physical systems, and then through supercomputers and cloud computing Integrate the Internet of Things and make it happen. Since then, this concept has been accepted by countries all over the world, and it has been used as an economic growth point in response to the financial tsunami.

Smart cities usually have:

  • Devices that measure traffic in real-time in order to inform drivers so that they can plan their routes better and to facilitate urban development decisions (urbanization policies, layout and widening of roads, etc.).
  • Devices that display which public parking lots and car and bicycle rental points are occupied in real-time to optimize traffic flow and the use of spaces and transportation vehicles.
  • Real-time geolocation of public transport vehicles for precise estimation and monitoring of schedules and itineraries.
  • Devices that measure how full garbage containers are to optimize collection.
  • Real-time measurement of pollution levels (CO2, ozone, water quality) to alert the population and improve public policies on the matter.
  • Alertson dangers (floods, fires, storms, hurricanes) to enact the proper prevention and response mechanisms (such as preventive evacuations, relief services, etc.).
  • Urban video surveillance.

In 2008, after Obama took office as President of the United States, he responded positively to IBM’s “Smart Earth” concept, which will be included in the national strategy and a new economic growth point in response to the financial crisis.

Later, for commercial purposes, IBM proposed the strategy of “breakthrough of smart cities in China”, and successively signed “smart city” co-construction agreements with many provinces and cities in mainland China, making new technologies such as “smart earth” and “smart city” The concept has attracted widespread attention from all walks of life.

As of 2012, Schneider Electric has completed the construction of smart cities in more than 200 cities around the world, including China, India, Europe, the United States, South America and other countries and regions.

In December 2012, the Chinese Academy of Engineering drafted and released the “China Engineering Science and Technology Mid- and Long-Term Development Strategy Research Report” which listed smart cities as one of China’s 30 major engineering science and technology projects for 2030.

Smart cities can help promote the sustainable development of cities, strike a good balance between development and environmental protection, and create a “smart environment”. In terms of urban planning, through the network and remote monitoring technology, the government can fully grasp and analyze data such as the city’s weather conditions, the degree of resource utilization, and road traffic conditions, so as to adjust and make good use of community resources to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction. “Environmental Footprint” to enhance environmental sustainability.

Both public transport management and monitoring and electronic road pricing systems can be applied in areas with heavy traffic, helping to improve and alleviate road congestion problems and practice “smart mobility”. Public transportation management and monitoring can provide real-time data to car owners, avoiding car owners from driving vehicles into congested roads, and improving urban transportation efficiency. The electronic road pricing system is based on the user pays principle to reduce unnecessary traffic demand, thereby improving regional traffic congestion and air quality.